ISSN 2407-2230 | E-ISSN 1907-3062 | Universa Medicina content is searchable on DOAJ, Google Scholar, and OAI

Motorcycle accident injuries are more severe than other land transportation injuries

Woro Riyadina Djoeworo, Dian Perwitasari Tasono Hadi, Sulistyowati Tuminah Darjoko
Submission date: Friday, 24 March 2017
Published date: Monday, 25 June 2018


Injuries due to traffic accidents are the leading cause of death and disability, especially in developing countries. The proportion of injuries in Indonesia tends to increase. The cause of the injury is dominated by motorcycle accidents (70-85%). The aim of this study was to compare the severity of motorcycle injuries with that of other land transportation injuries in Indonesia.

A study of a cross-sectional design was performed involving 15,849 subjects from 33 provinces in Indonesia. The dependent variable was the severity of injury and the main independent variable was transportation mode (motorcycle and other vehicles). Other independent variables included were respondent characteristics (sex, age, education, occupation, economic status) and health status (stroke, hypertension, heart disease, impaired hearing and vision). Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were used to analyze the data.

The contribution of motorcycle transportation mode to the severity of the injury was 85.5%. The proportion of severity of injury due to motorcycle transportation was higher (9.0%) than to other land transportation modes (7.5%). The severity of injuries related to motorcycle transportation was 1.1 times greater (AOR=1.1 95% CI 1.0-1.3) than that other related to vehicles. The determinants of severity of injury due to motorcycle transportation were age and sex.

Motorcyclists are at higher risk of having injuries than persons using other modes of transportation. Motorcyclists need to increase the safety of riding and to be more discriminating in the selection of the safest mode of transportation, by taking age and sex into consideration.


Injury; severity; motorcycle; land transportation

Full Text:



Mathers CD, Loncar D. Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030, PloS Med 2006;3:e442. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed. 0030442.

Peden M, Scurfield R, Sleet D, et al. World report on road traffic injury prevention, World Health Organization: Geneva;2004.

Gosselin RA. The increasing burden of injuries in developing countries direct and indirect consequences. Tech Orthop 2009;24:230–2. doi: 10.1097/BTO.0b013e3181bfd56c.

Naci H, Chisholm D, Baker TD. Distribution of road traffic deaths by road user group: a global comparison. Inj Prev 2009;15:55–9. doi: 10.1136/ip.2008.018721.

Thwee PP, Kanitpong K, Piyapong J. Road crashes and poverty in Myanmar: Yangon case study. J Eastern Asia Soc Transportation Stud 2013;9:12-6.

Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Laporan nasional Riskesdas tahun 2007 Jakarta : Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Kementerian Kesehatan RI;2008.

Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Laporan nasional Riskesdas tahun 2013. Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Kementerian Kesehatan RI;2014.

Wedagama D, Dissanayake D. Analysing motorcycle injuries on arterial roads in Bali using multinomial logit model. J Eastern Asia Soc Transportation Stud 2010;8:1892-1904.

Galukande M, von Schreeb J, Wladis A. Essential surgery at the district hospital: a retrospective descriptive analysis in three African countries. PLoS Med 2010;7:e1000243.

Rahman A, Baharuddin A, Mohamad S. Burden of motorcycle-related injury in Malaysia. Int J Emerg Med 2015;8:17. doi: 10.1186/s12245-015-0065-4.

Ngunu CN. Factors determining of injury severity among motorcycle crash victims attending Thika level 5 hospital, Klambu county 2013. [thesis]. Kenya: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology;2015.

Hattis R, Law M. The five stages of prevention: a practical new classification for health planning and clinical practice. Loma Linda, California;2013.

Adoga A, Ozoilo N. The epidemiology and type of injuries seen at the accident and emergency unit of a Nigerian referral center. J Emerg Trauma Shock 2014;7:77-82. doi: 10.4103/0974-2700. 130875.

Phillipo L, Joseph B, Isidor H, et al. Motorcycle injuries as an emerging public health problem in Mwanza city, Tanzania: a call for urgent intervention. Tanzanian J Health Res 2010;2:13-7.

Lin MR, Kraus JF. A review of risk factors and patterns of motorcycle injuries. Accid Anal Prev 2009;41:710-22. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2009.03.010.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration U.S. Department of Transportation. Traffic safety facts: Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) Annual Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation;2013.

World Health Organization. International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems. 10th Revision. Instruction Manual. Geneva: World Health Organization. Geneva;2011.

Lemeshow S, Hosmer DW, Klar J, Lwanga SK, Adequacy of sample size in health studies. New York: John Wiley& Son;1990.

Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Kementerian Kesehatan R.I. Pedoman wawancara Riskesdas tahun 2013. Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Kementerian Kesehatan R.I.; 2014.

World Health Organization. Health statistics and information systems: global health estimates. Geneva: World Health Organization;2011.

Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Kementerian Kesehatan R.I. Laporan biomedis Riskesdas tahun 2013. Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Kementerian Kesehatan R.I.; 2014.

National Traffic Management Center (NTMC). Laporan tahunan: Polantas dalam angka tahun 2013. Jakarta: National Traffic Management Center;2013.

Hanrahan RB, Layde PM, Zhu S, et al. The association of driver age with traffic injury severity in Wisconsin. Traffic Inj Prev 2009;10:361-7. doi: 10.1080/15389580902973635.

Riyadina W, Subik IP. Keparahan cedera pada korban kecelakaan sepeda motor di Instalasi Gawat Darurat RSUP Fatmawati. Univ Med 2007;26:64-72. DOI:

Riyadina W, Suhardi, Permana M. Pola dan determinan sosiodemografi cedera akibat kecelakaan lalu lintas di Indonesia. Maj Kedokt Indon 2009;59:464-72.

World Health Organization. Global status report on road safety. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013.

Gharde PM, Quazi SZ, Wagh VV, Road traffic accident victims socio-demographic profiles: a community-based study in Central India. Int J Comm Med Public Health 2017; 4:3819-24. DOI: ijcmph20174257.

Yiengprugsawan V, Stephen K, McClure R, et al. Risk factors for injury in a national cohort of 87.134 Thai adults. Public Health 2012;126: 33–9. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2011.09.027.

Department of Infrastructure,Transport, Regional Development and Local Government. Road deaths Australia 2008 statistical summary. Road safety report No. 4. Canberra: Department of Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government.; 2009.

Henley G, Harrison JE. Serious injury due to land transport accidents, Australia, 2006–07. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare; 2009.

Sethi D, Aljunid S, Saperi SB, et al. Comparison of the effectiveness of trauma services provided by secondary and tertiary hospitals in Malaysia. Ann Emerg Med 2007;49:52–61.

Sabariah FJ, Ramesh N, Mahathar AW. National trauma database (NTrD)-improving trauma care: first year report. Med J Malaysia 2008;63(Suppl C):45–9.

Transport and Tourism Statistics Finland. Statistics on road traffic accidents in 2012. Helsinki: Transport and Tourism;2013.

MacLeod JBA, DiGiacomo JC, Tinkoff G. An evidence-based review: helmet efficacy to reduce head injury and mortality in motorcycle crashes: EAST practice management guidelines. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2010;69:1101-11. doi: 10.1097/TA.0b013e3181f8a9cc.

Pour-Rouholamin M, Jalayer M. Analyzing the severity of motorcycle crashes in North Carolina using highway safety information systems data. ITE J 2016:45-9.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Universa Medicina

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License
Universa Medicina by Faculty of Medicine, Trisakti University is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at